One thing to add to @Dan_Huel’s response:
Nutrients are often divided in macronutrients and micronutrients.
As the name suggests Macronutrients are nutrients that are needed in higher quantities and often provide calories (energy). These include fats, carbs, fibers and protein.
Micronutrients, on the other hand, are needed in smaller amounts few grams to micrograms (1 g = 1,000,000microgram) and have little to no input towards energy. Micronutrients are vitamins and minerals. By definition (it is more complex than this), minerals are chemical compounds; e.g. Iron (Ferrum); Selenium; Calcium.
Vitamins are chemical compounds (organic) found on foods that are essential in minuscule amounts for proper body functioning (simplifying here). Vitamins are often not single molecules but groups (have a look at wiki); thus they can have slightly different names and forms.
Macronutrients (while they have chemical names) are often very large and complex. They are also “easier” to achieve from food.Therefore, you will not see their chemical names; since companies will use food sources. E.g. Oats as carbohydrate source (but they also provide fats and protein and vitamins and minerals).
Micronutrients are present at lower levels and not one food would be enough to give you all the daily recommended. Thus companies often use synthetic vitamin/mineral mixes. This allows them to provide you with the pure compound and all the daily recommended in an easy and affordable way. While we could go into debating what is optimal and not; it is generally consider safe and healthy practice.
I feel like I entangled some of my ideas; but the basic premise is that vitamins and minerals are “hard to come by” in food; therefore many companies use synthetic vitamin/mineral mixes to provide you your daily needs. Thus, in the labels they appear in their “pure” form or chemical name (even though all products could be broken down to chemical names).